Kingdoms & empire

Flag of Ashanti

The Ashanti Empire emerges in modern-day Ghana

Starting in the late 17th century, the Ashanti king Osei Tutu and his adviser Okomfo Anokye established the Ashanti Kingdom, with the Golden Stool of Asante as a sole unifying symbol.

Betsileo tomb

The Betsileo kingdoms emerge in Madagascar

The different Betsileo kingdoms (Fandriana, Fisakana, Manandriana, Isandra, etc.) existed independently of each other with oral traditions dating back to the 17th century.

Sunset over the Luangwa River, Zambia

Four kingdoms emerge throughout modern-day Zambia

The period between the 16th and the 19th centuries saw the emergence of organized Iron Age kingdoms in Zambia. Four kingdoms were established in this period – the Kazembe-Lunda, the Bemba, the Chewa, and the Lozi.